Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods) ➔ Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods) ➔ Class Insecta (Insects) ➔ Order Coleoptera (Beetles) ➔ Family Chrysomelidae (Leaf beetles)

Xanthogaleruca luteola (Müller, 1766)

Gelber Ulmenblattkäfer Elm Leaf Beetle

Synonyms:

Chrysomela luteola Müller, 1766 | Pyrrhalta luteola (Müller, 1766) | Chrysomela xanthomelaena Schrank, 1781 | Galeruca ulmi Fourcroy, 1785 | Galerucella bicarinata Ogloblin, 1936 |

  • Xanthogaleruca luteola  2881
    Xanthogaleruca luteola (Müller, 1766)  Gelber Ulmenblattkäfer  Elm Leaf Beetle 
    Xanthogaleruca luteola; det. Klaas Reißmann
    ES, Mallorca, S'Albufera; 2009-09-19 11:48:03
    Image number: 2881

    ES, Mallorca, S'Albufera
    2009-09-19 11:48:03
    det. Klaas Reißmann
  • Xanthogaleruca luteola  2882
    Xanthogaleruca luteola (Müller, 1766)  Gelber Ulmenblattkäfer  Elm Leaf Beetle 
    Xanthogaleruca luteola
    ES, Mallorca, S'Albufera; 2009-09-18 14:29:37
    Image number: 2882

    ES, Mallorca, S'Albufera
    2009-09-18 14:29:37


Classification:
Xanthogaleruca luteola belongs to the subfamily Galerucinae, tribe Galerucini.
Distribution:
North Africa, Europe (north to south Scandinavia), east to north China, south to Afghanistan and Iran.
Habitat:
Elm trees.
Description:
Length 5.5 - 7 mm; body yellowish; wing covers yellowish to olive green, rather dense, delicate and regularly punctured; base of wing covers and a longitudinal stripe on each wing cover black; pronotum with dark triangular marking and 3 dark spots; pronotum distinctly wider than head and noticeably punctured; forehead-bump over the antennal base black; antennae darkened at the upper side; antennal segments 3 and 4 almost of equal length.
Xanthogaleruca luteola is the only species of the genus Xanthogaleruca in Europe.
Biology:
The Elm Leaf Beetle Xanthogaleruca luteola lives oligophagously on elms, especially on field elm (Ulmus minor).
The adults of Xanthogaleruca luteola become active in early spring when the first leaves sprout. They eat small holes in the leaves of their host plants. The eggs are laid by the females in groups of about 30 - 40 pieces in previously gnawed incisions on the undersides of the leaves. After about 7 days the larvae hatch. The larvae, which live in groups, feed on their host plants and can skeletonise the leaves. 2 - 3 weeks later the larvae pupate on the ground. After 1 - 2 weeks the new generation hatches. From August to the beginning of September the beetles move to their winter shelters in the foliage layer, on the ground or under bark.
Xanthogaleruca luteola undergoes 2 to maximum 4 generations per year.
Natural enemies:
The chalcid wasp Oomyzus (=Tetrastichus) gallerucae (Fonscolombe, 1832) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is a parasitoid of the eggs of Xanthogaleruca luteola. In addition to this species, other chalcid wasps (Chalcidoidea) and some tachinids (Diptera: Tachinidae) parasitize the Elm Leaf Beetle.

References, further reading, links:
  1. Rheinheimer, Joachim, & Hassler, Michael: Die Blattkäfer Baden-Württembergs, 2018, 928 pages, Kleinsteuber Books (Karlsruhe), ISBN 978-3-9818110-2-5
  2. Arved Lompe: Die Käfer Europas - Ein Bestimmungswerk im Internet